What the Trial of Joaquín “El Chapo” Guzmán Revealed About The Inner Workings of the Sinaloa Cartel

 

"El Chapo" at his trial, Courtroom sketch by Christine Cornell

Sketch by Christine Cornell

03/19/19- (written by Aitanna Ferrez) Joaquin “El Chapo” Guzmán was convicted in the Southern District of New York on Tuesday, February 12, 2019 on all counts brought against him for his role in directing the Sinaloa Cartel since roughly the 1980s. The trial revealed significant details about the Sinaloa Cartel, how it works, who is involved and where their business is conducted, providing a greater understanding of how this specific cartel has contributed to corruption and violence in Mexico. In the wake of his arrest and extradition to the United States, business of the cartel seems to be carrying on as usual, there is an ongoing epidemic of U.S. drug overdoses, and violence in Mexico has reached record levels. Understanding the impact of the Sinaloa Cartel and where it may be headed in Guzman’s absence requires a careful review of what we now know about the organization.

Background on the Sinaloa Cartel

According to InSight Crime, the Sinaloa Cartel began as a small group of farming families who switched to drug trafficking in the 1960s and 70s. In the 1980s, Joaquin “El Chapo” Guzmán officially founded the Sinaloa Cartel. Up until his arrest in January 2016, Guzmán served with Ismael “El Mayo” Zambada Garcia as what has been perceived as head of the drug trafficking organization.

The Sinaloa Cartel achieved success in part because of its relatively decentralized structure, with different geographic divisions of the network working together as “separate but cooperating organizations.” Indeed, though identified as the organization’s formal leaders in principal, InSight Crime reports that both Guzmán and Zambada Garcia historically maintained their own individual organizational structures within the Sinaloa Cartel. Meanwhile, many of the Sinaloa Cartel’s activities and operations in Mexico and internationally were “outsourced” to local suppliers, distributors, and other partners.

According to Vanda Felbab-Brown, a senior fellow at the Brookings Institute, in an interview with ABC News, it was “El Chapo” Guzmán’s ability to “institutionalize power systems and relationships” that largely enabled the cartel to expand. According to Bret Hamilton, assistant special agent for Alabama’s sector of the DEA, the Sinaloa cartel is said to control about one-fourth of the drug traffic within the Mexican Region, with an even larger reach and hold on the United States.”

The effect of the reach of the Sinaloa Cartel and its network of contraband trade has had translates directly into its ability to, as InSight affirms, “successfully [penetrate] government and security forces wherever it operates.” As stated in a June 2018 CRS report, the Sinaloa Cartel has “successfully corrupted public officials from the local to the national level inside Mexico and abroad to operate in some 50 countries,” allowing it to become the top supplier of illicit psychotropic substances in the United States.

What We Learned from the Guzmán Trial

The trial of Joaquín “El Chapo” Guzmán was a lesson in and of itself on how the Sinaloa Cartel’s success has been contingent upon the high level of corruption within the Mexican police, military, and government. Witness testimony during the trial brought to the surface countless allegations against Guzmán and the Sinaloa Cartel, and corruption was arguably the prominent theme that emerged throughout.

As revealed in a VICE News podcast, the corruption of the Sinaloa Cartel is practically embedded in all aspects of life in Mexico. Two testimonies in particular – one delivered by a former government official Lucero Sanchez Lopez, who became a mistress of Guzmán and the other by Alex Cifuentes, a relative of one of Guzmán’s primary cocaine suppliers in Colombia – brought to light the degree of high-level corruption of the Mexican government by the Sinaloa Cartel. In addition, according to the New York Times following the final presentation of evidence, reports delivered the prosecution revealed possibly the most shocking claims against Mr. Guzmán, accusing the crime lord of “routinely rap[ing] girls as young as 13 years old.”

The first witness’ testimony illustrated the way that government officials fell under Guzmán’s sway even as they were sworn to enforce the law. Cifuentes, meanwhile, alleged that the cartel was able to bribe officials even at the highest levels of office, including then-president Enrique Peña Nieto (2012-2018), who allegedly accepted a bribe of $100 million to protect the Sinaloa Cartel from authorities.

Looking Ahead

The Sinaloa Cartel, though constantly challenged within Mexico by other drug trafficking organizations, seems to prosper well due to its significant international network, even after the guilty verdict of Joaquín “El Chapo” Guzmán. In an interview with PBS Newshour, Mike Vigil, the former chief of international operations for the DEA, comments that capturing and convicting Guzmán “was a great moral victory for the rule of law, [but] it did very little to have a negative impact on the Sinaloa Cartel.” With the drugs continuing to be shipped, the Mexican government no longer hunting down drug lords, and Guzmán’s fate of little importance, the Sinaloa Cartel seems to continue to persist with business as usual.

 

Sources:

 

Beittel, June. “Mexico: Organized Crime and Drug Trafficking Organizations.” Congressional Research Service, 3 July 2018, pp. 1–28. https://fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R41576.pdf.

Feuer, Alan. “El Chapo Drugged and Raped 13-Year-Old Girls, Witness Claims.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 2 Feb. 2019. www.nytimes.com/2019/02/02/nyregion/el-chapo-trial.html.

 

Keneally, Meghan. “How El Chapo’s Sinaloa Drug Cartel Spread Its Reach Across US.” ABC News, ABC News Network, 13 July 2015. www.abcnews.go.com/International/el-chapos-sinaloa-drug-cartel-spread-reach-us/story?id=32421054.

 

Robinson, Carol. “Mexico’s Sinaloa Drug Cartel Leaving Deadly Mark on Alabama.” AL.com, Advance Local Media LLC., 23 July 2018. www.al.com/news/birmingham/index.ssf/2018/07/what_is_the_sinaloa_mexican_dr.html.

 

“Sinaloa Cartel.” InSight Crime, 30 Jan. 2018. www.insightcrime.org/mexico-organized-crime-news/sinaloa-cartel-profile/.

 

“The Verdict.” Chapo: Kingpin on Trial. VICE News/Spotify. 19 February 2019. https://open.spotify.com/show/3iZGZfoQX9kfzdZtAYi2s2?si=wxEH63CcQD2B50avZt8XJg.

 

Verza, Maria, and Mark Stevenson. “After El Chapo Conviction, Sinaloa Drug Cartel Carries On.” PBS, KPBS, 12 Feb. 2019. www.pbs.org/newshour/world/after-el-chapo-conviction-sinaloa-drug-cartel-carries-on.

 

Verza, Maria, and Mark Stevenson. “Despite ‘El Chapo’ Arrest, Mexico’s Powerful Sinaloa Drug Cartel Still Raking in Cash around the World.” The Japan Times, 13 Feb. 2019. www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2019/02/13/world/crime-legal-world/despite-el-chapo-arrest-mexicos-powerful-sinaloa-drug-cartel-still-raking-cash-around-world/#.XGxRBc9KigQ.

 

 

 

 

Alleged Mexican Government Corruption Exposed During the El Chapo Trial

Trial of Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán. Image Source: USA Today.

Trial of Joaquín “El Chapo” Guzmán. Source: USA Today.

02/11/19 (written by aferrez) The evidentiary phase of the trial of Joaquin “El Chapo” Guzmán Loera, the purported leader the of the Sinaloa drug cartel, came to a conclusion on Wednesday, January 30, 2019 after having raised newfound speculation about the extent of the corruption in Mexico.

The trial included testimony from at least 16 of Guzmán’s “underlings and allies, some of whom served as cartel bag men.” Several of these witnesses are among those who made allegations of corruption about Mexican government officials, including members of the current and past Mexican presidential administrations.

According to Alan Feuer of The New York Times, “It is no secret that Mexico’s drug cartels have, for decades, corrupted the authorities with dirty money.” Nonetheless, the testimony of some witnesses brought several shocking allegations. For example, the testimony of Vicente Zambada, son of Ismael Zambada an alleged partner of Guzmán. On the witness stand, Zambada claimed his father had a bribery budget of one million dollars a month, and all of it went to high ranking government officials.

In addition to allegations brought forth by Zambada, another witness named Miguel Angel Martínez brought further allegations against Mexican authorities. According to Martínez’s testimony reported by again by Alan Feuer of The New York Times, the chief of Mexico City’s federal police, Guillermo González Calderoni, was the first official on Guzmán’s payroll in the late 1980s, and has since allegedly provided Guzmán with “secret information on an almost daily basis.” This information included, but was not limited to, the disclosure of a radar system installed on the Yucatán Peninsula by the United States government to track Guzmán’s drug flights from Columbia.

The testimony of such witnesses underscored the fact that major drug trafficking operations necessarily involve some significant level of government complicity. This was point was made especially clear by Juan Carlos Ramirez Abadía, a Columbian supplier of Guzmán, who was quoted by The New York Timesas stating that “It’s impossible to be the leader of a drug cartel in Columbia without having corruption…they go hand in hand.” Abadía testified that in order to traffic drugs internationally, his organization paid off everyone from journalists to tax officials.

As revealing as the trial has been with such examples, some experts think the revelations of corruption only scratch the surface. Feuer notes “the trial is offering a public airing of the crimes of the Sinaloa drug cartel –– but is only revealing ‘what the government would like us to hear.’” Indeed, Judge Brian M. Cogan, who presided over the case, had initially instructed some witnesses that they must refrain from discussing alleged corruption of government officials in Mexico because, “It would needlessly embarrass certain individuals and entities.” Nonetheless, the trial brought forth numerous specific details that suggested high level government involvement in the drug trade.

Perhaps the most shocking allegation of the trial was the claim that Guzmán directed a payment of $100 million dollar to then-sitting president Enrique Peña Nieto. Alex Cifuentes Villa, the Colombian drug lord who delivered the testimony against Peña Nieto, is recorded to have saidthat the Sinaloa cartel was initially contacted by Peña Nieto about the time he was elected president in late 2012, according toAlan Feuer at The New York Times. Feuer also notes that Cifuentes Villa testified that Enrique Peña Nieto asked Guzmán for $250 million in exchange for calling off a nationwide manhunt for himduring the campaign. Both Peña Nieto and the López Obrador government vehemently refuted the allegations brought against them and their administrations on social media and in public statements to the press.

In response to these allegations, the defense counsel representing Guzmán raised questions about the credibility of the witnesses for the prosecution. In a quote for an article produced by BBC News Mundo, lead defense attorney Jeffrey Lichtman asserted that those testifying against Guzmán are, for the most part, members of the Sinaloa cartel themselves and their testimony is likely intended to gain them leniency on sentences that they are currently serving. Lichtman believes the level of legitimacy of the witnesses is tainted by the fact that they are “men who have cheated all their lives.” Indeed, several witnesses who testified during the trial reportedly struck deals with the prosecution in an effort to receive reduced sentences or U.S. visas.

The final ruling on Guzmán’s fate remains in the hands of the jury, which at the time of this posting was still deliberating on a verdict.  Regardless of the outcome, some analysts raised questions about whether there would be a reckoning for corrupt officials, given the details that were revealed at trial. In an interview with CBC Radio, Anabel Hernández, author of Narcoland: The Mexican Drug Lords and their Godfathers, stated, “The trial of El Chapo Guzmán is very symbolic…but the problem is that [it] will not resolve all the corruption, all the laundering of money that exists in Mexico, and that helps the Sinaloa Cartel, and also other cartels, to exist.”

Meanwhile, the trafficking of drugs to the United States continues unabated. Guzmán’s alleged partner, Ismael Zambada, remains at large and numerous other drug trafficking organizations continue to thrive in Mexico. Numerous sources reporting on the Guzmán trial note that this drug trafficking activity and the corruption that results is likely to continue as long as there is a voracious appetite for narcotics in the United States.

Sources:

Lissardy, Gerardo. “Juicio a ‘El Chapo’ Guzmán: La Batalla Clave De Los Testigos Comienza Con Relatos Épicos De Envíos De Cocaína, Dinero Sucio y Corrupción – BBC News Mundo.” BBC News, BBC, 15 Nov. 2018.https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-america-latina-46217746

Feuer, Alan. “El Chapo Trial Shows That Mexico’s Corruption Is Even Worse Than You Think.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 28 Dec. 2018.https://www.nytimes.com/2018/12/28/nyregion/el-chapo-trial-mexico-corruption.html

Tremonti, Anna Maria. “The Current: Trial of El Chapo Won’t Resolve the Corruption That Empowered Him, Says Journalist | CBC Radio.” CBCnews, CBC/Radio Canada, 7 Jan. 2019.https://www.cbc.ca/radio/thecurrent/the-current-for-january-7-2019-1.4963706/trial-of-el-chapo-won-t-resolve-the-corruption-that-empowered-him-says-journalist-1.4968242

Feuer, Alan. “Former Mexican President Peña Nieto Took $100 Million Bribe, Witness at El Chapo Trial Says.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 15 Jan. 2019.

 www.nytimes.com/2019/01/15/nyregion/el-chapo-trial.html.

 

 

Son of “El Azul” escaped prison with four other suspects

March 16, 2017. Mexican authorities report the son of Sinaloa Cartel leader "El Azul" escaped with four other cartel members from a Culiacán prison. Source: Daily Mail

March 16, 2017. Mexican authorities report the son of Sinaloa Cartel leader “El Azul” escaped with four other cartel members from a Culiacán prison. Source: Daily Mail

03/06/17 (written by Matteo Bucalossi) –  The son of “El Azul”, a top leader of the Sinaloa Cartel escaped from prison with four other drug suspects on March 16, 2017 in Culiacán, Sinaloa. The fugitive has been identified as Juan José “El Negro” Esparragoza Monzón, son of Juan José “El Azul” Esparragoza Moreno. “El Azul” was a leader of the Sinaloa Cartel along with Joaquín “El Chapo” Guzmán and Ismael “El Mayo” Zambada. “El Chapo” was extradited to the United States this year and is now facing a 17-count indictment in a federal court in New York. In addition,“El Mayo’s” whereabouts are still unknown and the FBI has posted a $5 million reward for information on him. According to Daily Mail, rumors alleged that “El Azul” died in 2014 from a heart attack. However, this has not been confirmed by authorities.

As reported by ABC News, Sinaloa assistant secretary of public safety, Cristóbal Castañeda Camarillo, declared that the inmates escaped the state prison during visiting hours. After a 911 call reporting that someone had been wounded inside the prison, the alarm sounded at 12:30 p.m. on Thursday, March 16. The federal search operation that began two hours later did not locate the fugitives. In addition, the Culiacán prison head of security, José Mario Murillo Rodríguez, has been missing since the escape, according to the secretary of public safety Genaro Robles Casilla. Castañeda addressed the possibility that they could have escaped with the aid of prison personnel and may have been hidden in vehicles.

The fugitives are believed to be connected to the Sinaloa Cartel and play significant roles within the organization. “El Negro” is suspected of running a drug distribution network and managing cartel finances. According to Milenio, he has been recently accused of instigating violence in Mexicali and Tijuana, . As reported by Justice in Mexico, he was arrested on January 19 while carrying three firearms, a sizeable amount of cocaine, and communication equipment.

Francisco Javier Zazueta Rosales, alias “Pancho Chimal”, is suspected to be the chief of sicarios (or hitmen) for “El Chapo”. He allegedly ordered and participated in the ambush that killed five Mexican soldiers in Culiacán on September 30. Jesús “El 20” Peña González is believed to be the security chief for “El Mayo”. Alfredo “El Limón” Limón Sánchez is a confidant of “El 20”. Rafael Guadalupe Félix Núñez, alias “El Changuito Ántrax”, is a financial operator in Los Ántrax, an armed group aligned with the cartel.

Authorities petitioned the courts to transfer the suspects to separate maximum-security federal prisons. “El Negro” is considered one of Mexico’s 122 priority criminal suspects and the United States has requested his extradition. However, the prisoners have won court injunctions against these requests. As reported by Business Insider, the order for “El Negro” was granted on January 23rd by a judge in the fourth district of Sinaloa, while federal authorities had issued orders of interim protection to extradite him. “Pancho Chimal” was granted the same order by the same judge on February 21st.

The effects can already be seen in the state of Sinaloa. An internal fight between cartel members is taking place on the streets of the state. According to Business Insider, in early February, two sons of “El Chapo” and “El Mayo” were reportedly ambushed by another high-ranking member, Dámaso López Serrano, son of the founder of Los Ántrax, Dámaso López Núñez.

 

Sources:

Heinle, Kimberly. “Son of Sinaloa Cartel leader arrested in Culiacán.” Justice in Mexico. January 28, 2017.

“Son of Mexican drug lord escapes from prison.”ABC News. March 17, 2017.

“Son of notorious Mexican drug lord who led the Sinaloa cartel alongside El Chapo escapes from prison with four other associates.” Daily Mail. March 17, 2017.

Monjardín, Alejandro. “Desaparece el jefe de custodios del penal de Culiacán, luego de la fuga de 5 reos.” Rio Doce. March 17, 2017.

Mosso, Rubén, Ignacio Alzaga, and Cynthia Valdez. “Hijo de ‘El Azul’ se fuga de penal en Culiacán.” Milenio. March 17, 2017.

Woody, Christopher. “The son of ‘El Chapo’ Guzman’s shadowy business partner just busted out of prison.” Business Insider. March 17, 2017.

Son of Sinaloa Cartel leader arrested in Culiacán

FBI award poster

The U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation’s award poster for information leading to the arrest of Juan José Esparragoza Moreno, “El Azul,” of the Sinaloa Cartel. Source: El Universal.

01/28/17 (written by kheinle) — The Anti-Narcotics Division within Mexico’s Federal Police force (Policía Federal, PF) arrested Juan José Esparragoza Monzón, “El Negro,” on January 19, 2017 in Culiacán, Sinaloa. El Negro is the son of Juan José Esparragoza Moreno, “El Azul,” one of the presumed leaders of the Sinaloa Cartel. His arrest came the same day the Mexican government extradited notorious Sinaloa Cartel kingpin Joaquín “El Chapo” Guzmán to the United States.

El Negro was one of the top 122 individuals the Peña Nieto administration identified as priorities to capture. El Universal reports that his arrest was the 106th such suspect to have been taken down since President Enrique Peña Nieto took office in 2012. El Negro allegedly played a significant role in the Sinaloa Cartel’s operations. Authorities say he was actively involved in the cartel for over 20 years, and he currently oversaw a drug distribution network and the cartel’s finances. According to Renato Sales Heredia, the head of the National Security Commission (Comisión Nacional de Seguridad, CNS), El Negro was responsible “for the wave of violence in Mexicali and Tijuana, Baja California.” Reports indicate he was arrested while carrying three firearms, a sizable amount of cocaine, and communication equipment.

El Negro’s father, El Azul, is an alleged leader of the Sinaloa Cartel alongside El Chapo Guzmán and Ismael “El Mayo” Zambada. With his extradition, Guzmán now faces 17 charges of organized crime, murder, and drug trafficking in New York, whereas Zambada’s whereabouts is still unknown. El Azul, meanwhile, reportedly died of a heart attack in 2014, although his death was never confirmed. The U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) still has a $5 million reward for information leading to El Azul’s arrest, while the Mexican Attorney General’s Office (Procuraduría General de la República, PGR) has an award of $30 million pesos. El Azul has often been considered a quieter, more discreet leader doing more behind the scenes to support the Sinaloa Cartel’s operations than his counterparts, Guzmán and Zambada.

The impact of Guzmán’s extradition and El Negro’s arrest on drug trafficking and “the wave of violence” in Baja California caused by the latter are yet to be seen.

Sources:

“Key leader in Sinaloa Cartel believed to have died from heart attack.” Justice in Mexico. June 12, 2014.

“Detienen a Juan José Esparragoza, hijo de un líder del Cártel de Sinaloa, en Culiacán.” Animal Político. January 23, 2017.

Sánchez, Astrid. “Fuerzas federales detienen a hijo de ‘El Azul.’” El Universal. January 23, 2017.

Sánchez, Astrid. “Perfil. ‘El Azul’, el capo discreto.” El Universal. January 23, 2017.

Verza, Maria. “Mexico captures son of Sinaloa drug cartel boss ‘El Azul.’” Associated Press, Washington Post. January 23, 2017.

Fighting escalates between the Sinaloa Cartel and the Jalisco New Generation Cartel

kidnapping photos of El Chapo's sons

Images of the kidnapping of El Chapo’s sons, Iván and Jesús, captured on camera at La Leche Restaurant. Source: EFE.

08/29/16 (written by kheinle) — The turf battle between the Jalisco New Generation Cartel (Cartel de Jalisco Nueva Generación, CJNG) and the Sinaloa Cartel has heated up recently. The rivalry is likely one of the driving factors behind the uptick in the number of drug-related homicides in Mexico, as described below. Yet it also has played out in more high profile incidences, such as the CJNG’s kidnapping or potential involvement in the murder of several family members of the Sinaloa Cartel’s leaders, sending a clear message to kingpins Joaquín “El Chapo” Guzmán and Ismael “El Mayo” Zambada.

The first incident happened on Monday, August 15 when CJNG gunmen brazenly kidnapped El Chapo’s sons, Iván Archivaldo Guzmán Salazar (33) and Jesús Alfredo Guzmán Salazar (29), along with four others at La Leche restaurant in the tourist zone of Puerto Vallarta. The brothers’ decision to enter rival territory may have played a role in the kidnapping given Puerto Vallarta is known as CJNG territory. The New York Times quoted former director of Mexico’s intelligence services Guillermo Valdes on the matter: Their decision “…[is] a grave error that is going to cost them a lot, either in life or in a very costly negotiation.  If you’re in a fight with these gentlemen of the Jalisco New Generation, you don’t go to their territory without bodyguards.” It was not clear at first if Iván was one of the kidnapping victims, but a report from federal sources and the Río Doce weekly news outlet later confirmed that he was. The kidnappings were also more than likely a challenge to El Chapo, as an attempt to demonstrate the kingpin’s weakened alleged stature behind bars in Ciudad Juárez. El Chapo was arrested for the third time in Mexico in January 2016, and previously in 2001 and 2015; he currently awaits possible extradition to the United States. In the meantime, El Mayo Zambada has taken over control as the leader of the Sinaloa Cartel.

Iván and Jesús Guzmán (left to right), son's of notorious kingpin, Joaquín El Chapo Guzmán. Source: Twitter - Iván Guzmán.

Iván and Jesús Guzmán (left to right), son’s of notorious kingpin, Joaquín El Chapo Guzmán. Source: Twitter – Iván Guzmán.

Iván, Jesús, and the other kidnapping victims were eventually freed just less than a week after their kidnapping, a move that has led to more public speculation. According to journalist Anabel Hernández who regularly covers drug trafficking and crime in Mexico, the brothers were let go as a result of negotiations between the Sinaloa Cartel and Jalisco New Generation Cartel. Furthermore, The New York Times writes El Mayo was reportedly directly involved in the negotiations for their release, during which they were likely used as “bargaining chips”. Furthermore, El Mayo was reportedly directly involved in the negotiations for their release. Río Doce’s director, Ismael Bojórquez, reported this in an interview with Radio Fórmula, noting that he had three sources of information confirming, though he could not disclose their identities. Few other details have emerged about El Chapo’s sons’ release, but CNN México did note that “there were certain requirements” that had to be met for them to be let go.

Just days after Iván’s and Jesús’ release, reports then revealed that the family of El Mayo had been targeted. According to the Sinaloa State Attorney General’s Office (Procuraduría General de Justicia del Estado de Sinaloa, PGJE), Édgar Juvanny Parra Zambada (42), El Mayo’s nephew, was gunned down in Culiacán alongside an individual known as Juan “N” (43). Authorities have not confirmed the CJNG’s role in the attack although their involvement may be likely given the upswing in fighting between the cartels.

As Justice in Mexico wrote in its 2015 “Drug Violence in Mexico” report, the CJNG, led by Nemesio Osegera Cervantes, “El Mencho,” formed in 2010 after the death of Ignacio “Nacho” Coronel, who had been the leader of the Sinaloa Cartel in Jalisco, which left a power vacuum in the region that several criminal groups scrambled to fill. The group emerged as the predominant force in Jalisco thanks in large part to its ties with the Milenio Cartel, the organization that dominated Michoacán prior to the rise of the La Familia Organization and the Knights Templar Organization, which effectively took over that state in the 1990s and early 2000s. The CJNG struck off on its own and has had held a strong presence in neighboring Michoacán since 2000. It has expanded east from Jalisco and Michoacán to Veracruz, details The New York Times, and has more recently attempted to push further into Sinaloa Cartel territory by going north into Baja California Sur and along the border, which has escalated levels of violence in those respective areas.

data from SESNSP showing monthly homicides under President Peña Nieto

Source: Secretariado Ejecutivo del Sistema Nacional de Seguridad Pública.

In fact, according to data released from Mexico’s National System of Public Security (Sistema Nacional de Seguridad Pública, SNSP), there were more than 2,000 homicides nationwide in July 2016. Mexico Security Initiative Fellow Stephanie Leutert at the University of Texas at Austin and contributor to the blog Lawfare, writes that this number is “25 percent higher than [in July 2015] and the most violent month in Enrique Peña Nieto’s presidency.” Still, Leutert notes that it is difficult to pin that increase on one cartel’s actions or a feud between several. However, “it’s clear that there seem to be power shifts—or at least attempts at power shifts—taking place across Mexico’s criminal landscape as various groups jockey for territory and power.” It will therefore be interesting to monitor how the situation between the Sinaloa Cartel and Jalisco New Generation Cartel further unfolds in coming months.

Sources:

Heinle, Kimberly et al. “Drug Violence in Mexico: Data and Analysis Through 2014.” Justice in Mexico. April 2015.

The Associated Press. “Mexican Drug Lord’s Kidnapped Son Potential Bargaining Chip.” The New York Times. August 19, 2016.

Bojóquez, Ismael. “Los hijos del Chapo: asunto de Estado.” Río Doce. August 22, 2016.

EFE. “’El Mayo’ negoció liberación de hijos de ‘El Chapo’: Río Doce.” El Universal. August 22, 2016.

“Liberan al hijo de ‘El Chapo’ que había sido secuestrado del Puerto Vallarta, confirman fuentes a CNN.” CNN Español. August 22, 2016.

“’Mayo’ Zambada habría negociado liberación de hijos de ‘Chapo:’ Ríodoce. Con Ciro Gómez Leyva.” Radio Fórmula. August 22, 2016.

“Confirman asesinato del sobrino de ‘El Mayo’ Zambada.” Excélsior. August 27, 2016.

Leutert, Stephanie. “Mexico’s Resurging Violence.” Lawfare Blog. August 29, 2016.

Secretariado Ejecutivo del Sistema Nacional de Seguridad Pública. “Incidencia Delictiva Nacional.” Secretaría de Gobernación. Last accessed August 29, 2016.